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The Jominy end-quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth. Jominy Test and Hardness Depth. Thanks to Walter Jominy (the Chief Metallurgist of Chrysler Corporation sometime before the war), there is a simple but. The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a given set.

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The main alloying elements which affect hardenability are carbon, boron and a group of jminy including Cr, Mn, Mo, Si and Ni. Increasing the carbon content increases the hardness of steels up to about 0.


The Jominy end quench test is the standard method for measuring the hardenability of steels. Jominy Test and Hardness Depth. Two specimens of a low alloy steel with 0. The jjominy of the time step is set to the maximum allowed while ensuring numerical stability of the simulation.

The Jominy end quench test is used to measure the hardenability of a steel, which is a measure of the capacity of the steel to harden in depth under a given set of conditions. This TLP considers the basic concepts of hardenability and the Jominy test. The retardation is due to the need for redistribution of the alloying elements during the diffusional phase transformation from austenite to ferrite and pearlite. The furnace used to heat the steel into the austenite phase field.

It is typically used with lower carbon steels. Thanks to Walter Jominy the Chief Metallurgist of Chrysler Corporation sometime before the warthere is a simple but accurate test to assess the hardenability of a given sample. Hardenability depends on the chemical composition of the steel and also be can affected by prior processing conditions, such as the austenitizing temperature. It is not only necessary to understand the basic information provided from the Jominy test, but also to appreciate how the information obtained can be used to understand the effects of alloying in steels and the steel microstructure.


This describes the ability of the steel to be hardened in depth by quenching. This results in a progressive decrease in the rate of cooling along the bar ojminy the quenched end. The unit of hardenability is length.

The Jominy End Quench Test

The effect of boron is also independent of the amount of boron, provided sufficient is added, and the effect of boron is greatest at lower carbon contents. Data from the Jominy end quench test can be used to determine whether gest particular steel can be sufficiently hardened in different quenching media, for different section diameters. Select the most appropriate steel to achieve the necessary levels of mechanical properties, residual stress and distortion in an injection moulding die for a mobile phone plastic case.

There are different scales for the Rockwell hardness test. Overview of Major Steels. For example, a steel of a high hardenability can transform to a high fraction of martensite to depths of several millimetres under relatively slow cooling, such as an oil quench, whereas a testt of low hardenability may only form a high fraction of martensite to a depth of less than a millimetre, even under rapid cooling such as a water quench.

A jet of water emerges from the cone at the bottom, to touch the lower end of the sample.

The Jominy test provides a measure of the ability of a steel to harden by transforming into martensite under set conditions, i. The most commonly used elements are Cr, Mo and Mn. Knowledge of the hardenability of steels is necessary in order to select the appropriate combination of alloy and heat treatment for components of different size, to minimise thermal stresses and distortion.

The graph below gives the Jominy end quench data in terms of the Rockwell hardness number. Boron can therefore only affect the hardenability of steels if it is in solution.

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Just take a standard size sample The alloy steel clearly has the highest hardenability, forming martensite to a greater depth than the plain carbon steel. Jominy end quench unit for testing the hardenability of steels.

Slower cooling rates occur at the core of larger components, compared to the faster cooling rate at the surface. Similar tests have been developed in other countries, such as the SAC test, which uses a sample quenched from all sides by immersion in water.

The fluid used for quenching the material influences the cooling rate due to varying thermal conductivities and specific heats. The jjominy is typically 1. As the water jet sprays onto the end tdst the hot, glowing specimen, a cold dark region spreads up the specimen.

This alternative longer video clip contributed by Oxford Brookes University shows both the transfer of the sample from furnace to Jominy machine, and the jet spraying one end of the sample. Slow quenching speeds are often chosen to reduce distortion and residual stress in components.

DoITPoMS – TLP Library The Jominy End Quench Test

These include alloying elements and grain size. General Remarks to Literature and Sources. Hardenability is the ability of a steel to partially or completely transform from austenite to some fraction of martensite at a given depth below the surface, when cooled under a given condition. Your browser does not support the video tag. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This is commonly used in the USA. It’s important to use the correct conversion chart for different materials, since the hardness test causes plastic strain, and therefore varies with the strain hardening properties of the material.

James Marrow University of Cambridge Content development: A heat treatment that causes steel to harden is so much more than the meer plunging of hot metal into a fluid that is often a liquid.