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This land was known by the umbrella term tierras fiscales, and parcels were rented out to herders, while attempts were made to sell the land off, its marginality made it mostly unappealing. Ironically, its location in General Roca, an economically vibrant region without direct access to political power, enabled it to avoid bruising confrontations with regional administrators and provide ample space for local issues in small communities. Ley was approved in as a modification to the law that had created a military governorship over all of Patagonia.
Conclusion The newly incorporated territories received only minimal state attention for the first half century of existence, relying exclusively on an ill-supported skeleton crew of governors, judges, and policemen.
Image from the AGN The growth of these villages, towns, czballo cities dictated the rate and intensity of conflict with state authorities. Transatlantic immigrants followed the rails south and west, while Chilean immigrants settled eastward from the Andean valleys, mixing with Argentine settlers and the surviving indigenous peoples.
Books by Javier Villafañe
Argentina cellso caught in an untenable situation, by relying heavily on immigrants to shore up its claim on Patagonia it filled a contested border region with people of unclear loyalty. R Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire: In and javire itself that original narrative spun by Luciana played on anxieties and expectations of teenage indigenous girls being sold into marriage, or exchanged for gifts.
If the patronage networks between local officials and powerful neighbors created a para- legal structure designed to maintain peace and order in small frontier towns, then the accessibility of connections to outside authorities was the first step in breaking through those arrangements. Why would Leonarda wander off almost two miles out of her way onto a rocky hill cahallo holding on to her canteen?
Catalog Record: Javier Villafañe : poesía 1938-1990 | Hathi Trust Digital Library
Previous studies of court cases in the frontier have focused particularly on violent crimes as a way to understand how criminality and marginality were constructed by government officials and elites. Two railroads one owned by British interests, and the other funded entirely by the Argentine state connected many of the settlements to each other and to the rest of the country, but an expansion of those lines to cover the region more comprehensively never materialized.
Following the removal, dispersal, and marginalization caballo indigenous peoples during the Conquest of the Desert, the government needed to repopulate Patagonia to solidify its hold on the region against competing international claims. The particulars of how a teen came to give birth in secret in a remote farm without any medical assistance, and why she died in childbirth, became the focus of two separate police investigations between and What tools did they have to ensure their own success in the frontier, both within the institutions of the state and outside of them?
They not only read and commented on several of its chapters, but they provided me with a chance to meet and engage with scholars from throughout California.
On the other hand, the Buenos Aires government and its newly acquired indigenous allies pursued punitive actions against non-allied indigenous groups, sometime quite asymmetrically, which increased the number of indigenous people living under the allotment system. The justices also maintained the Registro Civil for their district, registering births and deaths, as well as issuing transit permits for hides and cattle. The governors were required to live in the capital of the territory they had been appointed to, but they sought to find ways to avoid having to spend cabalol in the frontier, sometimes even holding other posts throughout the country.
Economic success brought more people to frontier outposts, but it fell to social and cultural associations to tie the immigrant communities together. In the first few years of the twentieth century, the Argentine government distributed booklets in several languages across Europe to encourage migration to northern Patagonia.
The state in the frontier operated as a space of contestation for settlers to negotiate state legitimacy by using petitions, complaints, investigations, and allegations against each other and against state agents in an effort to establish and modify social order in their communities.
The judges had a 41 Palacio, La paz del trigo. Buenos Aires en la entreguerra Buenos Aires: Log In Sign Up. Judge Arce believed that such a drastic measure would not only prevent the development of future criminals by removing children from perceived dangerous situations, but would also help suffocate the trade in humans that seemed to persist in the territory.
I was fortunate to receive a Cota Robles Fellowship my first two years at Berkeley, which encouraged me to undertake sprawling research projects without having to teach. Crews, For Prophet and Tsar: He continued to publish it until his death, using the paper to buttress his political ambition, as he served on the council and even chaired it on several occasions.
Pampinella suggested that Luciana and her mother welcomed the 81 The original reads: Besides bringing in countrymen and extended family, immigrant merchants in northern Patagonia used their commercial success to invest heavily in other areas of the local economy.
Judges, governors, and police officers were the main institutional staples of the state in Patagonia. To some of the ways in which migrants turned those interpersonal relationships into commercial and social networks we now turn.
Yuri Slezkine, Arctic Mirrors: The investigator deposed Margarita Anelaf de Cayul eleven days after the incident when the search efforts had died down, treating her as a potential suspect in the disappearance of her niece. Contemporary scholarship on Brazil,8 Mexico,9 the United States,10 and Latin America more broadly11 have similarly sought to understand the acquisition of some rights, the restrictions of others, and the exclusion of particular individuals from formal citizenship in innovative, dynamic ways.
“Frontier Justice” | Javier Cikota –
This peculiar Patagonian type of citizen sought to reap the cultural and material benefits of the state which they themselves strove to build and of which they saw themselves as stewards in the frontier.
Throughout the period, however, state representatives, settlers, and indigenous subjects used indigeneity as powerful legal tool to either incriminate or exculpate suspects, tapping into a deep reservoir of shared cultural misreadings.
The judge agreed, ending the case in an anticlimactic dismissal. Fraught with internal contradictions, unclear jurisdictions, and constant scarcity, the state representatives of Argentine rule in Patagonia made virtue javuer of necessity, creating a stable and responsive institutional scaffolding onto which civil society could begin to develop in the frontier.