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The dual mandate is an expression of the fundamental principles of European imperialism in tropical Africa as theorized by Sir Frederick Lugard (–). L95 Dual mandate In British tropical Africa, 3 The original of this book is in the Cornell Sir F. D. LUGARD g.c.m.g., c.b., d.s.o. HON. Donor challenge: Your generous donation will be matched 2-to-1 right now. Your $5 becomes $15! Dear Internet Archive Supporter,. I ask only.

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Lugardborn January 22,Fort St. His name is especially associated with Nigeriawhere he served as high commissioner —06 and governor and governor-general — He was knighted in and raised to the peerage in Posted to India and swept into the British imperial advance of the s, he served in the Afghan, Suakin Sudanand Burma Myanmar campaigns.

An officer with a promising career ahead of him in British India, he experienced a catastrophic love affair with a married woman. His next enterprise was under the imperial British East Majdate Companyone of the chartered companies that preceded imperial annexation in Africa. Leaving Mombasa in Augusthe led a caravan for five months along an almost untrodden route of miles 1, km to the advanced kingdom of Buganda.

Here he found a complex struggle going on among animists, Muslims, Protestants, and Roman Catholics—the latter two groups converted by British and French missionaries who had reached Buganda earlier by a southern route—and the nominal king, or kabaka. Within 18 months—not without a brief use of his one operative Maxim gun—Lugard imposed peace, carried out an immense march to the west, and won a treaty of allegiance from the kabaka. Hearing that his company meant mwndate abandon Uganda because of lugrd expenses, he hurriedly returned to England to fight a successful two-pronged campaign to defend, first, the retention of Uganda in addition to imperial annexation and, second, his own reputation against accusations of harshness and injustice.

In —95 Lugard accepted another dangerous mission, this time for the Royal Niger Companyto race the French in a treaty-making exploration on the Middle Niger. He succeeded in that enterprise in spite of great hardships—including a poisoned arrow in his head. From the Niger he went, again at some risk to his life, to the semidesert of the Bechuanaland Protectorate for the private British West Charterland Company, which was prospecting for diamonds. There he was tracked down by a runner sent lugadd the colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlainto offer him his first official government appointment.

He was to create a British-officered African regiment that he was to employ in a second attempt to fend off lhgard French, madnate then were competing with the British right across Africa from lugarrd Niger to the Nile. This was to become the famous West African Frontier Force. Most of this vast region ofsquare milessquare km was still unoccupied and even unexplored by Europeans.

Full text of “The dual mandate in British tropical Africa”

In the south were pagan tribes and in the north, historic Muslim city-states with large walled cities whose emirs raided the tribal territories to the south for lutard.


In three years, by diplomacy or the swift use of his small force, Lugard established British control, though in hastening to take the major states of Kano and Sokoto he forced the hands of his more cautious home government. Only two serious local revolts marred the widespread acceptance and cooperation that Lugard obtained. His policy was to support the native states and chieftainships, their laws and their courts, forbidding slave raiding and cruel punishments and exercising control centrally through the native rulers.

This system, cooperative in spirit and economical in staff and expense, he elaborated on in his detailed political memorandums. It greatly influenced British administration in Africa and beyond.

Though sometimes misapplied or overprolonged, it helped bridge the gap between tribal systems and the new movements toward democracy and unity. In Lugard married Flora Shaw, a beautiful and famous woman, herself a great traveler, an authority upon colonial policy, and a member of the staff of The Times of London. A very deep devotion and partnership grew up between them.

Because she could not stand the Nigerian climate, Mandats felt obliged to leave Africa and to accept the governorship of Hong Kongwhich he held from to No greater contrast could be imagined than that between the vast untamed expanse of Northern Nigeria and the small island dyal Hong Kong with its highly civilized Chinese and sophisticated commercial British community.

But the bushwhacker from Africa achieved a surprising degree of success and, on lugafd own initiativefounded the University of Hong Kong. He could not, however, resist the great opportunity offered to him in to unite the two parts of Nigeria into one vast state.

The south and north showed wide contrasts in their original character and in their traditions of British rule. It was an immense task to unify their administration. Lugard did not attempt a complete fusion of their systems and retained a degree of dualism between south and north.

He found the south, especially the sophisticated Africans of Lagos and the southeast, less easy to understand than the northerners, and in he had to deal manvate a serious outbreak in the important city-state of Abeokuta. Nor did he find it easy to extend the principles of indirect rule to the loosely organized societies of the Igbo Ibo and other southeastern tribes.

His tenure of office also was made more difficult by World War Iwith its interruption of communications, its resultant shortages of staff, and the war with the Germans in the Cameroons along his eastern frontier.

Yet, in the main, Lugard carried through an immense task of unification, which was officially declared on January 1, Historians must judge the event by the decision of the Nigerians to obtain their independence in mahdate a united lubard and to defend it against the attempted Llugard secession to set up an independent state, Biafra, lugafd the late s. In he retired, but only to a life of unceasing activity in his role as the leading authority on colonial government.

In he became Baron Lugard of Abinger and spoke mzndate authority in the House of Lords on colonial subjects. To the end of his life, deeply saddened by the death of his wife inhe worked almost incessantly in his secluded house on a survey of matters affecting the interests of native races both inside and outside the British Empire.

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Though to modern critics of colonialism there may seem much to criticize in his ideas and actions, there can be no questioning the great range and effectiveness of the three periods of his work: We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points lugsrd mind.

The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa, by Frederick John Dealtry Lugard (1965)

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Our editors will review what you’ve submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we’ll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed. Learn More in these related Britannica articles: In —06 he had seen no other way to control the vast population in northern Nigeria, whose rulers he had defeated, and he had subsequently been promoted governor-general —19 of a united Nigeria, which was by far the most important British colony in Africa.

Lugard also made treaties of protection with two other chiefs, the rulers of the western states of Ankole and Toro. However, when the company…. In the early s, long after Britain annexed Lagos as a crown colonyLugard conquered the north. His central government comprised….

Lugard, chose an emblem to appear on various colonial flags.

On a red dhal he placed a green six-pointed star, which he referred to as the Seal of Solomon. Initial difficulty of European administration. Help us improve this article! Contact our editors with your feedback. You may find it helpful to search within the site to see how similar or related subjects are covered. Any text you add should be original, not copied from other sources. Lguard the bottom of the article, feel free to list any sources that support your changes, so that we can fully understand their context.

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