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to these bribes, subsequent land purchases, and related real estate construcnon acnvines, Evergrande has employed a Source: Evergrande filings, Citron research. Note: Evergrande reported 35bn of equity including minority interests. .. Hunan Xiongzhen Investment Co., Ltd (湖南雄震投資有限公司). [1]. Andrew Left heads a Los Angeles-based company, Citron Research, an in- depth analytical report on Evergrande Real Estate Group Ltd, now. Evergrande Real Estate Group Limited concerning the Group in the Report. relation to a report (the ”Report”) issued by Citron Research.

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Like Muddy Waters, Citron Research, run by Andrew Left from his Beverley Hills, Evergrandw home, is known for targeting companies with research exposing what it claims are financial irregularities. Follow Please login to follow content. There was no dispute that Mr Evergrandr headed the research team who prepared the Report and had authorized its dissemination on the Internet, by giving the relevant instructions.

Did he nevertheless, although aware of a and b above, go ahead and publish it? The Tribunal found that Mr Left had engaged in market misconduct, contrary to s. Citron Research had an easily ascertainable, somewhat unnerving, reputation, the Tribunal said, and the Report was a substantial document, filled with data, graphs, lists and the like.

It remains to be seen as to how the content and the scope of the duty of care which is owed to the market evvergrande its standard are to be developed in future cases.

The Tribunal agreed with the SFC and ruled that the only information available to Mr Left was information in the public domain which was the information he used as the basis for the Report.

Was he further aware that in the circumstances the risk was of such substance that it was unreasonable to ignore it? Citron Research had established a certain reputation for itself, with a degree of notoriety, and citgon therefore likely to be given attention, especially given the sensationalist language used in estafe Report.

Search by Service Area. In the report, Citron said Evergrande was a good opportunity to short sell and that Citron might hold a short position.

Yet, Mr Left when conducting his verification exercise, chose not to take the most obvious precaution of seeking expert advice. Negligence Counsel for Mr Left argued that negligence was not properly to be read as applying to all persons but only to those persons who, by their actions, had an existing duty and a standard of care to meet and it had to be demonstrated that the person stood in or had assumed a special relationship to the market, e.

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Nor did he approach Evergrande for clarification of those matters. The report quickly became news internationally, being picked up by equity researchers and news services around The Tribunal said that the right of freedom of expression is not an absolute right and referred to journalists as an example.

Left reviewed the material, deleted publicly non-verifiable information using the internet and company filings, updated the numerical information and published it as his report. The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles. Nor did he approach Evergrande for clarification of those matters. As the Tribunal emphasised in its ruling, the purpose of s.

The test in respect of negligence which is objective was in compiling and publishing the Report, did Mr Left exercise ldt level of care to avoid the inclusion of false or misleading information as to material facts that is realistically required of a reasonably prudent person carrying out the function of a market esttae or groip Keep up the good work, it’s most appreciated!. Trading volume spiked to the highest since Novemberwith about million shares changing hands.

The test in respect of negligence which is objective was in compiling and publishing the Report, did Mr Left exercise that level of care to avoid the inclusion of false or misleading information as to material facts that is realistically required of a reasonably egergrande person carrying out the function of a market commentator or analyst?

If you would like to lhd how Lexology can drive your content marketing strategy forward, please email enquiries lexology. The Tribunal made it clear that the test was a predictive, objective test, namely the Tribunal was required to ask itself not whether the posting of the Report on the Internet did have an broup on ldt Hong Kong market by inducing the sale or purchase of Evergrande shares, but instead was required to determine whether, having regard to all relevant factors, it was probable at the time when the Report was posted that it would have such an effect.

Likely effect on the market The Tribunal made it clear that the test was a predictive, objective test, namely the Tribunal was required to ask itself not whether the posting of the Report on the Internet did have an impact on the Hong Kong market by inducing the sale or purchase of Evergrande shares, but instead was required to determine whether, having regard to all relevant factors, it was probable at the time when the Report was posted that it would have such an effect.

The requisite elements that must be proved are: Login Register Follow on Twitter Search. Reuters and the Reuters sphere logo are registered trademarks and trademarks of the Reuters citrpn of companies around the world. Citron Research had established a certain reputation for itself, with a degree of notoriety, and was therefore likely to be given attention, especially given the sensationalist language used in the Report.

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Section 1 of the SFO prohibits dissemination of false or misleading information about securities or futures that is likely to induce another person to trade in the securities or affect the price of the securities. The allegations contained in it were direct and combative and of utmost seriousness and, whether on more careful analysis, it proved to have no substance, it must on any initial reading have been a disturbing document and one quite capable — even if over a limited period of time- of having an impact on the market.

The MMT considered that, as someone who held himself out as an expert in detecting corporate fraud, Left should either have sought expert accounting advice or sought comment from Evergrande, as regulated analysts often do. On 21 June, he bought shares to cover his rel position. Hong Kong October 27 Comments As the Tribunal emphasised in its ruling, the purpose of s. He had therefore ccitron the Report and thereby disseminated the setate.

Left has since criticised the MMT decision as an attack on freedom of speech and free flow of information in financial markets. Andrew Left heads a Los Angeles-based company, Citron Research, which publishes stock commentaries on its website. Its share price was relatively stable from April to June Potentially and in one sense, s. Deacons – Peter So. Register now for your free, tailored, daily legal newsfeed service.

The test as to knowledge was whether Mr Left knew when he published the Report that the information in question was false or misleading. Left also argued that negligence should be judged differently for those who did not have a special relationship to the market by being company insiders or analysts, as people outside these categories assumed no duty of care to the market.