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Noma is an opportunistic infection promoted by extreme poverty. It evolves rapidly from a gingival inflammation to grotesque orofacial gangrene. Cancrum oris. Prevalence: Unknown; Inheritance: ; Age of onset: Childhood; ICD A; OMIM: ; UMLS: C; MeSH: D; GARD: Cancrum oris or noma (from the Greek nomein, “to devour”)1 is a “gangrenous affection of the mouth, especially attacking children in whom the constitution is.

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Noma causes sudden tissue destruction that rapidly gets worse. Sitemap What’s New Feedback Disclaimer.

Oral mucosa — Lining of mouth. Trop Med Int Health. Health Topics A-Z Read more.

A type of malnutrition called Kwashiorkorand other forms of severe protein malnutrition Poor sanitation and dirty living conditions Disorders such as measles or leukemia Living in a developing country.

Once the cicatrisation stage is complete, stepwise reconstructive surgery aimed at relieving the stricture of the mouth and then reconstruction of the mandible and maxilla, cheek, lips and nose can be considered. Other search option s Alphabetical list.

Oro-facial gangrene (noma/cancrum oris): pathogenetic mechanisms.

Prognosis Noma is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, often due to complications such as generalised sepsis, intracerebral septic emboli, bronchial aspiration or inanition.

Delayed treatment will not allow a return to status quo ante. This will improve facial appearance and the function of the mouth and jaw.

A physical exam shows inflamed areas of the mucous membranes, mouth ulcers, and skin ulcers. Isolation of Fusobacterium necrophorum from cancrum oris noma O. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella intermedia are important bacterial pathogens in this disease process, interacting with one or more other bacterial organisms such as Borrelia vincentiiPorphyromonas gingivalisTannerella forsythiaTreponema denticolaStaphylococcus aureusand certain species of nonhemolytic Streptococcus.


Leptospira Leptospira interrogans Leptospirosis. It occurs in malnourished children in areas where sanitation and cleanliness are lacking. The aetiology remains unknown. Chlamydophila psittaci Psittacosis Chlamydophila pneumoniae.

Noma (disease) – Wikipedia

In other countries, such as Ethiopiainternational charities work in collaboration with the local health care system to provide complex reconstructive surgery which can give back facial functions such as eating, speaking and smiling. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology 3rd ed. The dehumanizing oro-facial gangrenous lesion affects predominantly children ages 2 to 16 years, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where the estimated frequency in some communities varies from 1 to 7 cases per population.

Noma is a rapidly progressive, polymicrobial, often gangrenous infection of the mouth or genitals. Known in antiquity to such physicians as Hippocrates and Galennoma was once reported around the world, including Europe and the United States. Retrieved from ” https: Cementicle Cementoblastoma Gigantiform Cementoma Eruption cyst Epulis Pyogenic granuloma Congenital epulis Gingival enlargement Gingival cyst of the adult Gingival cyst of the newborn Gingivitis Desquamative Granulomatous Plasma cell Hereditary gingival fibromatosis Hypercementosis Hypocementosis Linear gingival erythema Necrotizing periodontal diseases Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis Pericoronitis Peri-implantitis Periodontal abscess Periodontal trauma Periodontitis Aggressive As a manifestation of systemic disease Chronic Perio-endo lesion Teething.

Antibiotics and proper nutrition helps stop the disease from getting worse. Hope for Africa’s Hidden Children”. The risk factors associated with noma are malnutrition, intercurrent disease such as rubella or malaria, poor oral hygiene, and the presence of a lesion of the gingival mucosa an early sign of necrotising gingivitis.

Cancrum oris in an adult Caucasian female. Noma, actinomycosis and nocardia. When to Contact a Medical Professional. Acute necrotizing gingivitis ANG and oral herpetic ulcers are considered the antecedent lesions, and ongoing studies suggest that the rapid progression of these precursor lesions to noma requires infection by a consortium of micro-organisms, with Fusobacterium necrophorum Fn and Prevotella intermedia Pi as the suspected key players.


J Pak Assoc Dermatol ; The ulcers develop a foul-smelling drainage, causing bad breath and skin odor. This can eventually destroy the soft tissue and bone. Photograph showing the extensive defect on left side of the face Click here to view.

The management of acute noma is aimed at improving the health status introduction of a balanced diet and vitamin supplements, and sufficient hydration of affected individuals and providing topical care. Confounding interactions of malnutrition with infection.

Pathogenesis of cancrum oris noma: Hope for Africa ‘s Hidden Children. Salivary glands Benign lymphoepithelial lesion Ectopic salivary gland tissue Frey’s syndrome HIV salivary gland disease Necrotizing sialometaplasia Mucocele Ranula Pneumoparotitis Salivary duct stricture Salivary gland aplasia Salivary gland atresia Salivary gland diverticulum Salivary gland fistula Salivary gland hyperplasia Salivary gland hypoplasia Salivary gland neoplasms Benign: None, Conflict of Interest: Noma is a gangrenous disease that causes severe destruction of the soft and osseous tissues of the face.

In addition to the severe facial destruction, children with noma often present with rhinolalia aperta, uncontrollable drooling, and socially handicapping halitosis. BV4 non- proteobacterial G- primarily A00—A79—, — Periodontium gingivaperiodontal ligamentcementumalveolus — Gums and tooth-supporting structures. Ann Plast Surg ; The exact cause is unknown, but noma may be due to a certain kind of bacteria.