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Z. Bojarski, M. Gigla, K. Stróż, M. Surowiec, Krystalografia. Podręcznik wspomagany komputerowo, Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, Warszawa, , , Also, conferences on applied crystallography (Z. Bojarski, U. Silesia), solid crystals and liquid crystals (J. Zmija, Military U. of Tech.), defects in. and component related to size of crystallites (βk) (BOJARSKI, BOŁD ,. BOJARSKI, ŁĄGIEWKA , CULLITY ). In order to eliminate .. Krystalografia.

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The first description of crystalline minerals written in the Polish language was published in by Wojciech Tylkowski. Polish textbooks of mineralogy containing elements of crystallography were published in the universities of Krakow and Lwow in the second half of the 19th century.

At the Jagiellonian U. Kreutz, an author of books on theoretical crystallography, supervised the Ph. Janik on the X-ray structure of ZnCl 2. At the Lwow U. Chrobak studied inorganic crystals by X-ray methods, T. Baranowski grew protein single crystals of muscle myogen and Z.

Crystallography in Poland

Wayberg, studied crystal symmetry and morphology. Other early crystallographic studies included analysis of metal alloys by powder krystslografia W.

Pienkowski studied polymers and single crystals by X-ray and electron diffraction and in A. Laszkiewicz, published a paper on the structure of hexamethyltetramine salicylate. Warsaw studied growth and properties of single crystals of metals. Universities and Institutes of PAN are the main centers of crystallographic research in Poland and there are X-ray powder diffraction laboratories in industrial institutions.

In this report five areas of crystallographic bojzrski in Poland are summarized: I chemical crystallography, II physical crystallography, III applied crystallography, IV crystal growth and liquid crystals and V protein crystallography. An additional section VIwritten by Z. Dauter editor of Acta Cryst. Section D discusses Polish crystallographers working outside of Poland. Chojnacki, who studied fibrous isopolymolybdates and published the structure of cadmium oxycyanomolybdate IV dihydrazine tetrahydrate, in His followers lead five independent research groups.

Oleksyn concentrates on biologically important compounds including antimalarials, flavonoids and sweeteners, potential drugs containing Se and Te, and inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activators and HIV-1 integrase. Lasocha pursues powder diffraction analysis with ab initio and Rietveld refinement procedures. Together with bojrski staff of the Dept. Hodorowicz was recently elected president of PCA. Galdecki determined the krystalogafia structure of KAs4O6, the first structure determination at the Crystallography Lab.

Galdecki headed the Crystallography and Crystal Krustalografia Group for almost 50 years. At present the 20 member staff of professors, senior scientists, PhD students, and technicians use crystallography to explore structure – activity relationships, drug-receptor interactions, bojarsk engineering, weak interactions in molecular crystals, stereospecific reaction mechanisms, polymorphism, electron density and solid catalysts.

Current targets for analysis include anticonvulsants and adenosine receptor ligands J. Karolak-Wojciechowskaantibacterial krystalogafia M. Glowkaherbicides and structurally constrained endomorphine analogs R. KruszynskiCu II complexes L. Sieronstereoelectronic control of molecular conformation and crystal packing W. Wolfkrystalohrafia complexes of Re T.

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Bartczakand charge density studies of biological phosphates W. In Lodz U. The Crystallography Group has wide international colloborations, and awarded the krystalograafia of doctors honoris causa to H. Since the A. Koziol group has pursued single crystal studies and polymorphism of biologically active compounds and the S. Pikus group has used powder diffraction and SAXS methods to analyzse amorphous and microporous materials. Wolfram in and has been led by J.

Research is focused on the study of heteromolecular complexes in which one of the components the host binds a variety of molecular species the guests in a selective and reversible manner. The ultimate goals of the research are the design of systems that selectively separate mixtures, activate chemical reactions, self assemble and transport specific molecules.

Host systems with internal cavities of molecular dimensions organic, zeolites, cyclodextrins, and calixarenes involving H-bonds and other non-covalent bonding are under analysis.

The physicochemistry and phase transitions structure dynamics of supramolecular complexes are studied over a temperature range of 80 to K. The Laboratory head, J. In, after post-doctoral study with J. Krajewski produced the first Polish integrated computer system for structure solution and refinement in the Crystallography Lab. The research team P. Krystalogrfia was engaged in conformational studies of mono- and disaccharides, structure – activity relationships of small biomolecules and application of molecular recognition in chemistry.

Chemical crystallography has also been studied in other Polish universities. In the early years crystallographic research in this area centered on organic compounds including acridine derivatives Bojars,i. Since projects have focused on organic krtstalografia, high-pressure studies, phase transitions, electron charge density, chemical reactivity, ferroelectrical, piezoelectrical and ferroelastic materials U. Oles began neutron diffraction investigations of crystal and magnetic structures, and phase transitions in crystals at the Stanislaw Staszic U.

A neutron diffractometer was constructed and mounted at the reactor in Swierk. The method of texture determination by neutron diffraction was worked out, krystalografiia in A. Recent research areas include: Kasprzykgroup theory analysis of crystal symmetry W.

Krystalotrafiaaperiodic systems J. Wolnyand investigations of the mechanisms of plastic deformation K. Research in the Dept. Sincemagnetic, electric and transport properties of ionic perowskite, spinel crystals, metals and alloys have been investigated at low and high temperatures in the Dept.

Magnetic and spectroscopic properties of crystals and electronic charge density in crystals are studied in the Inst. International conferences on polarized neutron scattering, high resolution Compton scattering as a probe of Fermiology and charge, spin and momentum density were organized by L. Lattice defects in the single crystals applied in optoelectronics are investigated by J. Pajaczkowska and colleagues at the Inst. Kozak investigates structures of fibrous materials using the small-angle X-ray scattering and is currently studying the effect of cationic surfactants on the structure of phospholipidic systems.

The staff of the Lab. Quasi-amorphous materials are analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction and radial distribution function methods. Numerical methods for studying highly dispersed solids transition krystalogafia deposited on supports SiO 2Al 2 O 3 are developed including reliable background estimation data, smoothing procedures, krstalografia quantitative analysis for in situ studies. Recently, analytic tools allowing an insight into the structure and dynamics of nanocrystalline metallic particles in a chemical reaction have been developed.

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A similar approach has been used successfully for the analysis of concentration profiles for bimetallic nanoalloys modified by chemisorption of gasses. The synthesis of new cyanic derivatives including new sandwich—type metallodiphthalocyaninato complexes, investigation of their transformations and crystal structure determination are the specialty of the research group. A semiconductor strip detector with a significantly increased rate of acquisition of powder diffraction data was constructed in Dept.

Zieba by a group led by A. X-ray powder methods are used by A. Mazurek and coworkers at the Central Forensic Lab.

The most effort is focused on analysis of trace samples found in clandestine amphetamine laboratories and amphetamine samples from the illegal drug market. Powder X-ray diffraction methods are also used in the investigation of inorganic and organic materials in five other laboratories in Poland Inst.

We also have projects based on collaborations with Polish partners Universities of Wroclaw, Gdansk and foreign labs U. Wlodawer another Polish compatriot at the National Cancer Inst. USA has been the initial seed for our scientific growth and an inexhaustible source of support, and scientific inspiration. Our protein crystallographic work started in collaboration with Wlodawer, included bojarsii of retroviral protease, retroviral integrase and an antileukemic amidohydrolase. After nearly 20 krystalogrsfia this collaboration is very much alive.

The Wlodawer lab has provided training in protein krysta,ografia to a number of postdocs and associates from Poland ,rystalografia G. Bujacz, a Professor at the Tech. Recently, the CBB has been reorganized to krysgalografia two new groups led by highly skilled specialists. Rypniewski returned to Poland after receiving training in western laboratories at a time when he was entering the most creative period of his scientific career. He has started a vigorous research program that includes determination of large macromolecular complexes and atomic resolution structures of proteins and nucleic acids.

Sikorski heads the other new group doing protein expression and purification. After a post-doc in A. Bujacz started research in the field of protein crystallography at the Inst. His achievements include crystal structure and mutational analysis of the cofactor-binding domain of the Cb1 trancriptional regulator, and an HIV protease complexes with inhibitors.

He was an initiator of the Lodz U. Lewinski and his research group investigate enzymatic mechanisms and inhibition of proteins in the Dept. In collaboration with L. gojarski

Crystallography Tutorials A – University of Warsaw

Their field of research also includes crystallographic studies of ribonuclease A and its variants under ambient and high pressure conditions. Wojtczak with his research group at the Dept. Bochtler, has quickly established a jrystalografia and competitive group, which is almost exclusively Polish.